The IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services is the most comprehensive ever completed. It is the first intergovernmental Report of its kind and builds on the landmark Millennium Ecosystem Assessment of 2005, introducing innovative ways of evaluating evidence.The report has been endorsed by 130 countries, including the U.S., Russia and China.It is also the first comprehensive global report in 15 years at the state of the planet’s biodiversity.
The Report warns that .Nature is declining globally at rates unprecedented in human history – and the rate of species extinctions is accelerating, with grave impacts on people around the world now likely.
The Report finds that around 1 million animal and plant species are now threatened with extinction, many within decades, more than ever before in human history.
To increase the policy-relevance of the Report, the assessment’s authors have ranked, for the first time at this scale and based on a thorough analysis of the available evidence, the five direct drivers of change in nature with the largest relative global impacts so far. These culprits are, in descending order: (1) changes in land and sea use; (2) direct exploitation of organisms; (3) climate change; (4) pollution and (5) invasive alien species.
The Report highlights the problem of Plastic Pollution.Plastic pollution has increased ten-fold since 1980.Every year, the world dumps 300-400 million tonnes of heavy metals, solvents, toxic sludge, and other wastes into the waters of the world.
Three-quarters of the land-based environment and about 66% of the marine environment have been significantly altered by human actions. On average these trends have been less severe or avoided in areas held or managed by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities.More than a third of the world’s land surface and nearly 75% of freshwater resources are now devoted to crop or livestock production.
8 million: total estimated number of animal and plant species on Earth (including 5.5 million insect species).Transformative Changes needed to address the change.