General Studies Paper 3 · IAS Prelims 2020 · Most Important Topics-Mains 2019 · RSTV

RSTC-Era of 5G(Big Picture)

  1. By granting 5G Licenses for commercial use,China has marked a new era in telecommunications industry.According to a forecast by Global system for Mobile Communications ,China is set to become world’s largest 5G market by 2025.China’s Huawei has signed deal with a Russia firm to develop 5G.
  2. According to Chinese officials, a comprehensive deployment of the Network will help develop Industrial Manufacturing,Internet Connected Cars,Artificial Intelligence,Healthcare,Smart City Management,etc.This in addition to the fact that the download speeds provided by 5G would be 20 times faster.A 3 Hour movie can be downloaded in seconds.
  3. This move comes amidst simmering tensions between China and US over trade and technology.At Mobile World Congress gathering,the top US cyber official, Robert Strayer, asked  the European Countries to consider the “threat” posed by using Huwaei’s equipment in Mobile communications.U.S was afraid of yielding control of telecom infrastructure to Chinese Firms that function under undemocratic regimes. U.S. is of the view that 5G products by Chinese companies could be used for Surveillance.Even tech giants like Google have distanced itself from Huawei(Google powers Android).
  4. U.S. restrictions and apprehensions regarding Huawei are mainly because of the safety or cybersecurity implications of switching from 4G to 5G.U.S. banned American companies from selling technology and equipment to Huawei.
  5. Trails for 5G mobile services in India are expected to start soon.The auction of the spectrum to mobile companies should be completed before the end of 2019.Telecom Minister recently commented that the government aims to set up 1 lakh Digital Villages by 2024.India may have 88 million 5G Connections by 2025.India however is yet to decide on it’s position on Huawei.
  6. 5G refer to Fifth Generation which was started from late 2010s. Facilities that might be seen with 5G technology includes far better levels of connectivity and coverage. The main focus of 5G will be on world-Wireless World Wide Web (WWWW). It is a complete wireless communication with no limitations. The main features of 5G are :
    • It is highly supportable to WWWW (wireless World Wide Web) High speed, high capacity
  • Currently, 4G networks are capable of achieving peak download speeds of one gigabit per second, though in actual practice it is never that fast. With 5G, this would increase to 10Gbps.
  • Ultra-low latency: “Latency” refers to the time it takes one device to send a packet of data to another device. In 4G, the latency rate is around 50 milliseconds, but 5G will reduce that to about one millisecond. This will be very much important for industrial applications and driverless cars.
  •  A more “connected world”: The Internet of Things (smart home appliances, connected cars etc.) is expected to grow exponentially over the next 10 years, and it will need a network that can have capacity for billions of connected devices. 5G will provide capacity and bandwidth as per the needs of user.
  • 5G is expected to become a catalyst for innovation in Internet of Things.Video buffering in streaming sessions is expected to disappear soon.Switching to 5G from 4G would require a new technology in infrastructure and handsets.Also switching to 5G would require a new spectrum with high frequencies, different from the one used today which is in the lower band.
  • .7.Drawbacks:Experts are of the opinion that 5G would cause a massive increase in Electromagnetic radiation as it is in the higher frequency bands as compared to networks used today(30GHz-300GHz) and should be thoroughly studied before put into practice.It also will require a lot more number of Antennas to be used and substantially increase exposure to RF-EMF(Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields).Microwave and Millimeter wave radiation in environment will rise and cause collapse of insect populations, bees,butterflies,and other pollinators.Possible effects on Human health may include damage to the eyes includinding cataract,retinal damage,etc,Skin Damage, Immune system and metabolic disruptions, etc.
  • The first generation (1G) mobile wireless communication network was analog used for voice calls only. The second generation (2G) is a digital technology and supports text messaging. The third generation (3G) mobile technology provided higher data transmission rate, increased capacity and provide multimedia support. The fourth generation (4G) integrates 3G with fixed internet to support wireless mobile internet, which is an evolution to mobile technology and it overcome the limitations of 3G. It also increases the bandwidth and reduces the cost of resources. . 5G stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology and is going to be a new revolution in mobile market which has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth.