Context:The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) today asked Ministries Departments of Government of India, State Governments and State Authorities to continue the lockdown measures up to 31 May, 2020 in lieu of the increasing number of cases of novel coronavirus.
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister of India, is the apex body for Disaster Management in India. Setting up of NDMA and the creation of an enabling environment for institutional mechanisms at the State and District levels is mandated by the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
On 23 December 2005, the Government of India enacted the Disaster Management Act, which envisaged the creation of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister, and State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by respective Chief Ministers, to spearhead and implement a holistic and integrated approach to Disaster Management in India.
“To build a safer and disaster resilient India by a holistic, pro-active, technology driven and sustainable development strategy that involves all stakeholders and fosters a culture of prevention, preparedness and mitigation.”
NDMA is headed by the Prime Minister, who is the ex-officio chairperson of NDMA and can have up to nine other members, who are nominated by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister also appoints one of the members as vice-chairperson of the NDMA, who enjoys the rank of a cabinet minister
NDMA, as the apex body, is mandated to lay down the policies, plans and guidelines for Disaster Management to ensure timely and effective response to disasters.
Towards this, it has the following responsibilities:-
- Lay down policies on disaster management ;
- Approve the National Plan;
- Approve plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in accordance with the National Plan;
- Lay down guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the State Plan;
- Lay down guidelines to be followed by the different Ministries or Departments of the Government of India for the Purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects;
- Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plans for disaster management;
- Recommend provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation;
- Provide such support to other countries affected by major disasters as may be determined by the Central Government;
- Take such other measures for the prevention of disaster, or the mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with threatening disaster situations or disasters as it may consider necessary;
- Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of Disaster Management.
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 provides the legal and institutional framework for disaster management in India at the national, state and district levels.
1.The primary responsibility of Disaster management vests with the state government.
2.The central government lays down the plans, policies and guidelines and provides technical, financial and logistical support while the district administration carries out most of the operations in collaboration with central and state level agencies.
National Executive Committee (NEC)
- A National Executive Committee is constituted under Section 8 of DM Act, 2005 to assist the National Authority in the performance of its functions.
- Union Home secretary is its ex-officio chairperson.
- NEC is the coordinating and monitoring body for disaster management, to prepare a National Plan, monitor the implementation of National Policy etc.
National Disaster response force (NDRF)
NDRF is the specialized force for disaster response which works under the overall supervision and control of NDMA.
State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
Headed by Chief Minister of the respective state, SDMA lays down the policies and plans for disaster management in the state.
It is responsible to coordinate the implementation of the state Plan, recommend provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures and review the developmental plans of the different departments of the state to ensure integration of prevention, preparedness and mitigation measures.
District level Institutions
District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)
The District Magistrate/ District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the Authority as Chairperson besides an elected representative of the local authority as Co-Chairperson except in the tribal areas where the Chief Executive Member of the District Council of Autonomous District is designated as Co-Chairperson.
Further in district, where Zila Parishad exists, its Chairperson shall be the Co-Chairperson of DDMA.
The District Authority is responsible for planning, coordination and implementation of disaster management and to take such measures for disaster management as provided in the guidelines.
The District Authority also has the power to examine the construction in any area in the district to enforce the safety standards and to arrange for relief measures and respond to the disaster at the district level.
Disaster Management Cycle
A holistic and integrated approach will be evolved towards disaster management with emphasis on building strategic partnerships at various levels. The themes underpinning the policy are:
- Community based DM, including last mile integration of the policy, plans and execution.
- Capacity development in all spheres.
- Consolidation of past initiatives and best practices.
- Cooperation with agencies at national and international levels.
- Multi-sectoral synergy.