Human body’s immune system attacks foreign substances by making a large numbers of antibodies. An antibody is a protein that is formed in response to a specific protein on the and sticks to it, the latter referred to as an antigen. Antibodies circulate throughout the body in the blood plasma until they find and attach to this specific antigen. Once attached, they enforce other parts of the immune system to destroy the cells containing the antigen.Monoclonal antibodies are molecules engineered in the laboratory to serve as substitute antibodies that can restore, enhance, or mimic the immune system’s attack on cells.
Antibodies, known as immunoglobulins, are produced by B cells (plasma cells) to neutralize antigens
What are Monoclonal Antibodies?
It was in 1975 that Cesar Milstein and Georges Köhler developed technique for making monoclonal antibodies.They were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1982.
Monoclonal antibodies are used to treat many diseases, including some types of cancer. To make a monoclonal antibody, researchers first have to identify the right antigen to attack.The first therapeutic use in humans took place in 1982 to treat a lymphoma.
Scientists are of the opinion that Monoclonal Antibodies will be the bridge toward longer immunity, which will be conferred by vaccines.
Pros of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy:
Steps in Production of Monoclonal Antibodies:
What are Polyclonal Antibodies?
Whereas monoclonal antibodies come from a single cell lineage),polyclonal antibodies are secreted by different B cell lineages within the body.
These are a collection of immunoglobulin molecules that react to a specific antigen, each identifying a different epitope and can recognize and bind to many different epitopes of a single antigen.
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by injecting an antigen into an animal. To produce higher titers of antibodies against the particular antigen, the animal is given a secondary even tertiary immunization, after being injected with a specific antigen to elicit a primary immune response.
Polyclonal antibodies can now be obtained straight from the serum or purified to obtain a solution which is free from other serum proteins.