About Kigali Agreement
- In the 28th meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, negotiators from 197 nations have signed a historic agreement to amend the Montreal Protocol in Kigali, a capital city of a tiny African country, Rwanda on 15thOctober 2016.
- As per the agreement, these countries are expected to reduce the manufacture and use of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by roughly 80-85% from their respective baselines, till 2045.
- This phase down is expected to arrest the global average temperature rise up to 0.5o C by 2100.
- Kigali agreement is an amendment to Montreal Protocol.
- The Montreal Protocol is a most effective international environmental treaty to phase out the Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs) from the atmosphere.It came into force in 1989.
- It has 197 member parties to the protocol and become a first international treaty with complete ratification.
- It has undergone several amendments and Kigali amendment is the eighth amendment to this protocol.
- It has successfully curbed the 98% production of chlorofluorocarbons and other ODSs and significantly contributed to the repair of the ozone hole.
- Under the Montreal Protocol, the accelerated phase out of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) is underway with an aim to complete phase out by 2030 of these chemicals that result in ozone depletion and aid global warming.
- India is undertaking phase-out of HCFCs through the implementation of HPMP. The Stage-I of HPMP has been already implemented in the country and has successfully met all the ODS phase-out targets, including those of HPMP Stage-I.
- India has recently launched HPMP Stage-II for 2017-2023.
- Developed countries led by the US have been lobbying for the inclusion of HFCs within the MP. But this was opposed by developing countries led by India. The latter wanted HFCs to be governed by the Kyoto Protocol, which embodies the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility” (CBDR) unlike the MP which holds developed and developing countries equally responsible for elimination of banned chemicals. However, India has recently reversed her stand and agreed bring HFCs within MP.
- In a reversal of its earlier stand, recently India accepted the request of the United States and some other developed countries to work towards phasing out refrigeration chemicals known as hydrofluorocarbons, or HFCs, under the Montreal protocol on ozone layer protection.
- The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna Convention) was agreed in 1985. It established global monitoring and reporting on ozone depletion. It also created a framework for the development of protocols for taking more binding action.