Key findings of Global Tb Report:
- The world suffered huge reverses in progress towards tuberculosis (TB) elimination in 2020, thanks to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
- The biggest impact was felt in terms of detection of new cases.
- India contributed the biggest drop in detection of new cases.
- The biggest fallout of the decline in notification of new cases is that it has resulted in an increase in TB deaths.
A total of 1.5 million people died from TB in 2020 (including 214 000 people with HIV). Worldwide, TB is the 13th leading cause of death and the second leading infectious killer after COVID-19 (above HIV/AIDS).
What is Tuberculosis?
- TB is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- It typically affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect other sites.
- Intestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) accounts for 1% to 3 % of all TB cases worldwide. It can occur in the context of active pulmonary disease or as a primary infection without pulmonary involvement. It can be caused by a Direct extension from a contiguous site or Ingestion of milk products infected with Mycobacterium bovis – particularly seen with consumption of raw milk
- Typically ,the disease is spread when people who are sick with pulmonary TB expel bacteria into the air, for example by coughing.
- When a person develops active TB disease, the symptoms (such as cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss) may be mild for many months. This can lead to delays in seeking care, and results in transmission of the bacteria to others
India’s efforts in this regard:
- India is aggressively implementing its fully-funded National Strategic Plan to End TB.
- In the last few years, 50 million people have been treated.
- India seeks to achieve national scale-up of TB preventive treatment (TPT).
- It also seeks to achieve the UN High-Level Meeting (UNHLM) targets of 40 million persons started on TB treatment and 30 million on TPT globally in the remaining 18 months.
- Sub-national Certification of States and Districts instituted in 2020- The initiative marks districts/States-UTs on “Progress towards TB Free Status” under different categories measured with graded milestones of decline in TB incidence.