General Studies Paper 2 for IAS Mains


  • • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
    • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the
    federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
    • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
    • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
    • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges
    and issues arising out of these.
    • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments
    of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
    • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
    • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various
    Constitutional Bodies.
    • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
    • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of
    their design and implementation.
    • Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and
    associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
    • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
    performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the
    protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
    • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,
    Education, Human Resources.
    • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
    • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications,
    models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and
    institutional and other measures.
    • Role of civil services in a democracy.
    • India and its neighborhood- relations.
    • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s
    • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian
    • Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

Reference Books for General Studies Paper 2


Indian Polity for Civil Services Examinations – M. Laxmikanth. (Polity)

  1. Governance in India for CSE. (Governance – GS2)
  2. Pax Indica – Shashi Tharoor. (Foreign Policy – GS2)
  3. India and the World by Surendra Kumar. (Foreign Policy – GS2)
  4. The Constitution of India.
  5. Introduction to the Constitution of India by Durga Das Basu.
  6. Select Constitutions by Anup Chand Kapur, A.C. Kapur & K.K. Misra.
  7. Fifty Years of Indian Parliament by G.C. Malhotra.
  8. Social Theory, Development Administration & Development Ethics by Mohit Bhattacharya.
  9. Our Parliament by Subhash Kashyap.
  10. Public Institutions in India: Performance and Design by Devesh Kapur & Pratap Bhanu Mehta.
  11. Challenge and Strategy: Rethinking India’s Foreign Policy by Rajiv Sikri
  12. India’s foreign policy – V P Dutt.
  13. ARC reports; special focus to the fourth report on Ethics in Governance and the fifth report on Public Order.
  14. PIB.
  15. India.gov.in for Welfare Schemes.
  16. Briefs on Foreign Relations from MEA.
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