General Studies Paper 2 · RSTV

RSTV-One Nation,One Election(Big Picture)

The core issue is that India has a Parliamentary form of Government where the Government is accountable to the Lower House and hence, can be dissolved before the Expiration of the normal term if it loses Confidence. This would be difficult to implement along with the One Nation,One Election Rule. Therefore, a solution to this (which would be a radical solution )is to go for a Presidential Form of Government, where the date of election is fixed by a statutory law.

  • To implement it within the Parliamentary form of Government implementation of this proposal will require various Constitutional Amendements such as to Article 83,85,172,174,356 of the Constitution, which may act as roadblocks to implementation.This is needed to synchronise the Terms of the Lok Sabha and the State legislative Assemblies.If this has to be implemented, then the terms of some State Assemblies may have to be extended and others curtailed to synchronise with next Lok Sabha Elections in 2024.
  • Article 356 talks of Presidents Rule that can be imposed upon a state in case of Failure of Constitutional machinery.This has to be amended so that even if it is imposed the election to the state should coincide with that one date of election.
  • The idea is to reduce the expenditure and the cost of holding the elections which has gone up tremendously, reduce burden on administrative set up and security forces,timely implementation of government policies and ensure that administrative machinery is engaged in developmental activities rather than elections.
  • Along with The Constitution The Representation of People Act and The Parliamentary Procedures have to be amended.
  • When we started elections, simultaneous elections were held but who assemblies got dissolved in between it created gaps. This can repeat again.
  • Problems For Election Commission-Requirements for EVM’S and VVPAT will double, additional requirement for Polling Staff,Difficult in Transportation and Increased Transportation Costs,Augmentation of Central Police Forces, Problems Storage of EVM’S after elections, etc 

Constitution Articles to be Amended

Article 83

Duration of Houses of Parliament

(1) The council of States shall not be subject to dissolution, but as nearly as possible one third of the members thereof shall retire as soon as may be on the expiration of every second year in accordance with the provisions made in that behalf by Parliament by law
(2) The House of the People, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as a dissolution of the House: Provided that the said period may, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one year as a time and not extending in any case beyond a period of six months after s the Proclamation has ceased to operate
 
Article 85
85. Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution
(1) The President shall form time to time summon each House of Parliament to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit, but six months shall not intervene between its last sitting in one session and the date appointed for its first sitting in the next session
(2) The President may from time to time
(a) prorogue the Houses or either House;
(b) dissolve the House of the People
 
Article 172
172. Duration of State Legislatures
(1) Every Legislative Assembly of every State, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as a dissolution of the Assembly: Provided that the said period may, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time and not extending in any case beyond a period of six months after the Proclamation has ceased to operate
 
Article 174
1.
Article 174 in The Constitution Of India 1949
174. Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution
(1) The Governor shall from time to time summon the House or each House of the Legislature of the State to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit, but six months shall not intervene between its last sitting in one session and the date appointed for its first sitting in the next session
(2) The Governor may from time to time
(a) Prorogue the House or either House;
(b) dissolve the Legislative Assembly
 
Article 356
Article 356 in The Constitution Of India 1949
356. Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in State
(1) If the President, on receipt of report from the Governor of the State or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with he provisions of this Constitution, the President may be Proclamation
(a) assume to himself all or any of the functions of the Government of the State and all or any of the powers vested in or exercisable by the Governor or any body or authority in the State other than the Legislature of the State;
(b) declare that the powers of the Legislature of the State shall be exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament;
(c) make such incidental and consequential provisions as appear to the president to be necessary or desirable for giving effect to the objects of the Proclamation, including provisions for suspending in whole or in part the operation of any provisions of this constitution relating to any body or authority in the State Provided that nothing in this clause shall authorise the President to assume to himself any of the powers vested in or exercisable by a High Court, or to suspend in whole or in part the operation of any provision of this Constitution relating to High Courts
(2) Any such Proclamation may be revoked or varied by a subsequent Proclamation
(3) Every Proclamation issued under this article except where it is a Proclamation revoking a previous Proclamation, cease to operate at the expiration of two months unless before the expiration of that period it has been approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament Provided that if any such Proclamation (not being a Proclamation revoking a previous Proclamation) is issued at a time when the House of the People is dissolved or the dissolution of the House of the People takes place during the period of two months referred to in this clause, and if a resolution approving the Proclamation has been passed by the Council of States, but no resolution with respect to such Proclamation has been passed by the House of the People before the expiration of that period, the Proclamation Shall cease to operate at the expiration of thirty days from the date on which the House of the People first sits after its reconstitution unless before the expiration of the said period of thirty days a resolution approving the Proclamation has been also passed by the House of the People
(4) A Proclamation so approved shall, unless revoked, cease to operate on the expiration of a period of six months from the date of issue of the Proclamation: Provided that if and so often as a resolution approving the continuance in force of such a Proclamation is passed by both Houses of Parliament, the Proclamation shall, unless revoked, continue in force for a further period of six months from the date on which under this clause it would otherwise have ceased to operating, but no such Proclamation shall in any case remain in force for more than three years: Provided further that if the dissolution of the House of the People takes place during any such period of six months and a resolution approving the continuance in force of such Proclamation has been passed by the Council of States, but no resolution with respect to the continuance in force of such Proclamation has been passed by the House of the People during the said period, the Proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiration of thirty days from the date on which the House of the People first sits after its reconstitution unless before the expiration of the said period of thirty days a resolution approving the continuance in force of the Proclamation has been also passed by the House of the People
(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause ( 4 ), a resolution with respect to the continuance in force of a Proclamation approved under clause ( 3 ) for any period beyond the expiration of one year from the date of issue of such proclamation shall not be passed by either House of Parliament unless
(a) a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, in the whole of India or, as the case may be, in the whole or any part of the State, at the time of the passing of such resolution, and
(b) the Election Commission certifies that the continuance in force of the Proclamation approved under clause ( 3 ) during the period specified in such resolution is necessary on account of difficulties in holding general elections to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned: Provided that in the case of the Proclamation issued under clause ( 1 ) on the 6 th day of October, 1985 with respect to the State of Punjab, the reference in this clause to any period beyond the expiration of two years